The most widely used 8-bit microcontroller is of course the easiest microcontroller for beginners to learn, first introduced by Intel, due to its typical structure and perfect bus-specific registers for centralized management, numerous logic bit operation functions and control-oriented rich instruction system, known as a generation of "classics", for the future It laid the foundation for the development of other microcontrollers.
51 microcontroller has become a classic, easy to use microcontroller mainly has the following characteristics.
1.From the internal hardware to software has a complete set of by-bit operating system, called the bit processor, the object of processing not words or bytes but bits. Not only can some of the special function registers on the chip to process a bit, such as transfer, set, clear, test, etc., but also to carry out the logic of the bit operation, its function is very complete, easy to use.
2.At the same time in the on-chip RAM area also opened a special dual-function address area, the use of extremely flexible, this feature undoubtedly provides great convenience to the user, the
3.Multiplication and division instructions, which also brings convenience to programming. Many eight-bit microcontrollers are not equipped with multiplication functions, multiplication when you have to make up a subroutine call, very inconvenient.
Disadvantages: (Although it is a classic but the disadvantages are still very obvious)
1.AD, EEPROM and other functions need to rely on the expansion, increasing the burden of hardware and software
2.Although the use of simple I/O pins, but the high level when no output capability, which is the biggest weakness of the 51 series of microcontrollers
3.The operation speed is too slow, especially the double data pointer, if it can be improved to bring great convenience to the programming
4.51 protection capability is very poor, it is easy to burn the chip
At present, in teaching situations and performance requirements are not high occasions are used in large numbers
The most used devices: 8051, 80C51
Understanding the full range of 8051 microcontrollers: a comprehensive analysis of the proven 8051 architecture microcontrollers
MSP430 series microcontroller is a 16-bit ultra-low-power mixed-signal processor marketed by Texas Instruments since 1996, leaving people the biggest highlight is low power consumption and fast, assembly language is very flexible, addressing mode, few instructions, easy to get started. This is mainly due to the fact that it integrates many analog circuits, digital circuits and microprocessors on a single chip to provide a "monolithic" solution for practical applications. Its rapid development and expanding range of applications depend on the following features...
1.Powerful processing capabilities with a RISC architecture, rich addressing (7 source operand addressing, 4 destination operand addressing), 27 concise core instructions and a large number of analog instructions; a large number of registers and on-chip data memory for a variety of operations; efficient table lookup processing instructions; high processing speed, at The instruction cycle time is 125 ns at 8 MHz crystal drive. These features ensure that a highly efficient source program can be produced.
2. In terms of computing speed, the instruction cycle time is 125 ns driven by 8MHz crystal. 16-bit data width, 125ns instruction cycle and multifunctional hardware multiplier (multiply and add) together with the ability to implement certain algorithms for digital signal processing (such as FFT, etc.)
3.Ultra-low power consumption, the MSP430 microcontroller has ultra-low power consumption because of its unique features in reducing the chip's power supply voltage and flexible and controllable operating clock. The supply voltage is 1.8~3.6V. Therefore, the chip current will be around 200~400uA when running at 1MHz clock, and the lowest power consumption in clock-off mode is only 0.1uA.
1.I feel that it is not easy to get started, not suitable for beginners to start, information is also relatively small, can only run the official website to find
2.The instruction space is large, because it is a 16-bit microcontroller, the program in words, some instructions account for 6 bytes. Although the program is simple on the surface, but compared with the pic microcontroller space occupied a lot of.
In low-power and ultra-low-power industrial applications are more.
Most used devices: MSP430F series (Chinese data), MSP430G2 series, MSP430L09 series.
Understand the MSP430 full range of products: a comprehensive direct attack on the MSP430 microcontroller family members.
Here also mention the TMS series microcontroller, although not considered mainstream. The 8-bit CMOS microcontroller launched by TI, with a variety of storage modes, a variety of peripheral interface modes, suitable for complex real-time control occasions. Although not as good as STM32, not as flashy as MSP430, but TMS370C series microcontroller provides a cost-effective real-time system control through the integration of advanced peripheral function modules and memory configuration of various chips. It is also implemented with high performance silicon gate CMOS EPROM and EEPROM technology. Low operating power CMOS technology, wide operating temperature range, noise suppression, coupled with high performance and rich on-chip peripheral functions, make the TMS370C series microcontrollers have certain applications in automotive electronics, industrial motor control, computers, communications and consumer categories
Most used devices: TMS370C256A
STM32 series microcontroller launched by ST manufacturers, industry friends know that this is a super cost-effective series of microcontrollers, there should be no one, the function and its powerful. It is based on the ARM Cortex-M core designed for high-performance, low-cost, low-power embedded applications, while having first-class peripherals: 1μs dual 12-bit ADC, 4 megabits / second UART, 18 megabits / second SPI, etc., in power consumption and integration also has a good performance, of course, and the MSP430 power consumption is slightly inferior to some But this does not affect the engineers to its degree of enthusiasm, due to its simple structure and easy to use tools with its powerful features in the industry is famous ... its powerful features are mainly manifested in.
1. Core: ARM 32-bit Cortex-M3 CPU, maximum operating frequency of 72MHz, 1.25DMIPS/MHz, single-cycle multiplication and hardware division
2. Memory: On-chip integrated 32-512KB Flash memory. 6-64KB SRAM memory
3. Clock, reset and power management: 2.0-3.6V power supply and I/O interface drive voltage. POR, PDR and programmable voltage detector (PVD). 4-16MHz crystal oscillator. Embedded factory-tuned 8 MHz RC oscillation circuit. Internal 40 kHz RC oscillation circuit. PLL for CPU clock. 32 kHz crystal with calibration for RTC.
4. Debug mode: Serial debug (SWD) and JTAG interface. Up to 112 fast I/O ports, up to 11 timers, up to 13 communication interfaces
Learn about the full range of STM32 products: members of the full range of STM32 microprocessors at Sandpoint.
PIC microcontroller series is the product of the United States Microchip Corporation (Microship), there are three levels, namely, basic level, intermediate level, advanced level, is currently one of the fastest growing market share of the microcontroller, CPU using RISC structure, respectively, 33, 35, 58 instructions, is a streamlined instruction set, while using Harvard dual bus structure, fast operation, it enables program This instruction pipeline structure, in a cycle to complete two parts of the work, one is to execute the instruction, the second is to remove the next instruction from the program memory, so that the total seems to take only one cycle per instruction, which is one of the reasons for high efficiency operation, in addition to the PIC microcontroller has become a very hot microcontroller is not only the following characteristics.
With low operating voltage, low power consumption, strong driving capability, etc. The I/O port of PIC series microcontroller is bidirectional, and its output circuit is CMOS complementary push-pull output circuit. I/O pin adds a direction register for setting the input or output state, thus solving the problem that the 51 series I/O pin is high when the same input and output state.
When set to 1 for input state, and regardless of the pin is high level or low level, the external are high resistance state; set to 0 for output state, regardless of the pin for what level, are low resistance state, have considerable driving capacity, low level inlet current up to 25mA, high level output current up to 20mA. compared to the 51 series, this is a great advantage.
It can directly drive the digital tube display and the external circuit is simple. Its A/D is 10 bits, which can meet the accuracy requirement. It has online debugging and programming (ISP) function.
Its special registers (SFR) are not concentrated in a fixed address interval (80 to FFH) like the 51 series, but are scattered in four address intervals. Only five special registers PCL, STATUS, FSR, PCLATH, and INTCON appear in four memory bodies at the same time, but during the programming process, it is inevitable to deal with the special registers and to select the corresponding memory bodies repeatedly, i.e., to set or clear bit 6 (RP1) and bit 5 (RP0) of the status register STATUS. Data transfer and logic operations basically have to be carried out through the working register W (equivalent to the accumulator A of the 51 series), while the 51 series can also be transferred directly between each other through the registers, thus the PIC microcontroller bottleneck phenomenon is more serious than the 51 series, which should be well understood by friends in the programming
The most used devices: PIC16F873, PIC16F877
AVR microcontroller is a relatively new microcontroller launched by Atmel, its distinctive features are high performance, high speed, low power consumption. The AVR microcontroller instructions are word-based, and most of them are single-cycle instructions. And single cycle can execute the function of this instruction and finish reading the next instruction at the same time. Usually the clock frequency is 4-8MHz, so the shortest instruction execution time is 250-125ns. AVR microcontroller can become a hot microcontroller recently.
The AVR series does not have a structure similar to accumulator A. It is mainly through R16 to R31 registers to implement the function of A. In AVR, there is no data pointer DPTR like 51 series, but three 16-bit registers X (composed of R26, R27), Y (composed of R28, R29), Z (composed of R30, R31) to complete the function of data pointer (equivalent to having three sets of DPTR), and also can make the operation of post-increment or first-decrement, etc., while in 51 series, all the In the 51 series, all logic operations must be performed in A; but the AVR can be performed between any two registers, eliminating the need to go back and forth in A. These are better than the 51 series.
The AVR's special registers are concentrated in the address range of 00~3F, so there is no need to select the memory like PIC, which makes it easier to use than PIC. addresses, these on-chip RAMs are only used to store data and usually do not have the function of general-purpose registers. When the program is complex, the general-purpose registers R0 to R31 are not enough; while the 51 series has as many as 128 general-purpose registers (four times as many as the AVR), there will be no such feeling when programming.
AVR I/O pin similar to PIC, it also has used to control the input or output direction registers, in the output state, the high level output current in about 10mA, low level inhalation current 20mA. this is not as good as PIC, but than the 51 series or excellent ...
Disadvantages: is no bit operation, are in the form of bytes to control and determine the relevant register bits.
C language and 51 C language in the writing method there is a big difference, which makes from the beginning of learning 51 microcontroller friends very uncomfortable
There are 32 general-purpose registers (R0 to R31), and the first 16 registers (R0 to R15) cannot deal directly with immediate numbers, thus reducing the general-purpose nature. In the 51 series, all its general-purpose registers (address 00 to 7FH) can deal directly with the immediate number, obviously better than the former.
The most used devices: ATUC64L3U, ATxmega64A1U, AT90S8515
The STC microcontroller is a single clock/machine cycle microcontroller produced by Macrochip, to put it bluntly, the STC microcontroller is a combination of 51 and AVR, some people say that AVR is a replacement microcontroller for 51, but the AVR microcontroller has a big difference in bit control and C language writing method there is a big difference. The STC microcontroller combines the advantages of 51 and AVR, although the functions are not as powerful as AVR, but the functions that can be found in AVR are basically available in STC, and the STC microcontroller is a 51 kernel, which provides great convenience to engineers based on 51 microcontrollers, saving the time to learn AVR, while not losing the various functions of AVR.
STC microcontroller is a new generation of high-speed, low-power, super anti-interference 8051 microcontroller 51 microcontroller, the instruction code is fully compatible with the traditional 8051, but 8 to 12 times faster, the internal integration of MAX810 special reset circuit. 4 PWM 8-way high-speed 10-bit A, D conversion, for the motor motor supplier control, strong interference occasions, become a new series of 51 microcontroller after the ... series of microcontrollers...
Download burn program with serial port is convenient and easy to use, has a large number of learning materials and videos, the most famous to belong to the video of Mr. Du, many friends interested in microcontroller is through this video to start, while having a wide voltage: 5.5 ~ 3.8V, 2.4 ~ 3.8V, low power design: idle mode, power-down mode (can be woken up by an external interrupt)
STC microcontroller has in the application programming, debugging is more convenient; with 10-bit AD, internal EEPROM, can work in 1T / machine cycle, the speed is 8 ~ 12 times the traditional 51 microcontroller, the price is also cheaper.
3.4Channel capture/comparison unit, STC12C2052AD series for 2 channels, can also be used to implement 4 timers or 4 external interrupts, 2 hardware 16-bit timers, compatible with ordinary 8051 timers. 4-channel PCA can also implement 4 timers, with hardware watchdog, high-speed SPI communication port, full-duplex asynchronous serial port, compatible with ordinary 8051 serial port, while Also has advanced instruction set structure, compatible with common 8051 instruction set.
Manufacturer: ON Semiconductor
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