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Home > Embedded Events > STMicroelectronics STM32F407 Arduino Chip Interpretation

STMicroelectronics STM32F407 Arduino Chip Interpretation

Date: 14-12-2020 ClickCount: 2245

1. Introduction to MCU

Single-chip microcomputer is also called single-chip microcontroller. It is not a chip that completes a certain logic function, but integrates a computer system on a chip. It is equivalent to a miniature computer. Compared with a computer, the SCM only lacks I/O equipment. In a nutshell: a chip becomes a computer. Its small size, light weight and low price provide convenient conditions for learning, application and development.


2. STM32F407 chip


The STM32F407 series of chips are ST (STMicroelectronics) launched a high-performance microcontroller based on ARM Cortex™-M4 as the core. STM32F407 uses a 90-nanometer NVM process and ART (Adaptive Real-Time Memory Accelerator) ™). According to relevant market statistics, STM32 series chips shipped 1 billion units in 2017. As one of the world's largest semiconductor companies, ST has a wide range of product lines, sensors, power devices, automotive products and embedded processor solutions, which play an important role in the IoT ecosystem. Among them, MCU is one of the most important businesses. Official data show that in 2017, ST accounted for approximately 19% of the general-purpose microcontroller market. The company has more than 800 STM32 products and more than 50,000 customers.


3. The use of STM32F407 as a development is mainly based on the following reasons:

● High cost performance.

   The single purchase price of STM32F407VET6 model is about 13 yuan, and the bulk price will be lower.

● Large market and many development materials.

   As the most popular chip in the world, most companies in the market are currently developing chips based on the STM32 series, and corporate recruitment basically requires STM32. At the same time, there are many mature programs and related forums on the Internet.

● Powerful performance.

    STM32F407 provides the performance of the Cortex™-M4 core (with floating point unit) operating at 168 MHz. When executed from Flash memory, STM32F407/417 can provide 210 DMIPS/566 CoreMark performance, and use ST's ART accelerator to achieve FLASH zero wait state. DSP instructions and floating-point units expand the application range of the product.

● Abundant peripheral resources

   2 USB OTG (one of which supports HS)

   Audio: dedicated audio PLL and 2 full-duplex I²S

   Up to 15 STM32F407 communication interfaces (including 6 USARTs with speeds up to 11.25 Mb/s, 3 SPIs with speeds up to 45 Mb/s, 3 I²C, 2 CAN and 1 SDIO)

   Analog: 2 12-bit DACs, 3 12-bit ADCs at 2.4 MSPS or 7.2 MSPS (interleaved mode)

   Up to 17 timers: 16- and 32-bit timers with frequencies up to 168 MHz

   STM32F407 can easily expand the storage capacity with a flexible static memory controller that supports Compact Flash, SRAM, PSRAM, NOR and NAND memory

   True random number generator based on analog electronic technology


4. GPIO port operation

In an embedded system, it is often necessary to control many external devices or circuits with simple structures. Some of these devices need to be controlled by the CPU, and some need the CPU to provide input signals. For device control, STM32F407 Arduino uses traditional serial or parallel ports, which is more complicated. Therefore, embedded microprocessors usually provide a "general programmable I/O port", that is, GPIO.


 ● LED hardware schematic diagram

Operate the GPIO port of STM32F407 by operating the LED on and off. Look at the hardware schematic diagram related to the LED on the development board


According to the schematic diagram and the characteristics of the LED lights, we know that when the LED0, LED1, and LED2 pins output low level, the three LED lights will glow. On the contrary, when the output is high, the three LED lights will go out.


The three pins LED0, LED1, and LED2 correspond to GPIOE_3, GPIOE_4, and GPIOG_9 on the STM32F407 chip, respectively. Therefore, the on-off operation of the LED can be transformed into the pin output operation of STM32F407.


 ● STM32F407 GPIO port introduction

(1) Group

STMicroelectronics STM32F407 has 7 groups of IO. They are GPIOA~GPIOG, each group of IO has 16 IO ports, a total of 112 IO ports are usually called PAx, PBx, PCx, PDx, PEx, PFx, PGx, where x is 0-15.


(2) Multiplexing of GPIO

STM32F4 has many built-in peripherals, and the external pins of these peripherals are shared with GPIO. In other words, a pin can have many functions, but the default is the IO port. If you want to use a GPIO built-in peripheral function pin, you need GPIO multiplexing, then when the GPIO is used as a built-in peripheral, It's called multiplexing. For example, serial port is GPIO multiplexed as serial


(3) GPIO input mode

GPIO_Mode_IN_FLOATING floating input

GPIO_Mode_IPU pull-up input

GPIO_Mode_IPD pull-down input

GPIO_Mode_AIN analog input


(4) GPIO output mode

GPIO_Mode_Out_OD open drain output (with pull-up or pull-down)

GPIO_Mode_AF_OD multiplexed open-drain output (with pull-up or pull-down)

GPIO_Mode_Out_PP push-pull output (with pull-up or pull-down)

GPIO_Mode_AF_PP multiplexed push-pull output (with pull-up or pull-down)


(5) Maximum output speed of GPIO

2MHZ (low speed)

25MHZ (medium speed)

50MHZ (fast)

100MHZ (high speed)


5. STM32F407 Chip physical picture


6. Parameter table corresponding to the chip



7. Kernel

● 32-bit high-performance ARM Cortex-M4 processor

● Clock: up to 168MHz, it can actually be overclocked a little bit

 ● Support FPU (floating point operation) and DSP instructions


8.IO port

 ● STM32F407ZGT6: 144 pins 114 IO ports

 ● Most IO ports are resistant to 5V (except analog channels)

 ● Support debugging: SWD and JTAG, SWD only needs 2 data lines


9. Memory

 ● Memory capacity: 1024K FLASH, 192K SRAM


10. Clock, reset and power management

 ● 1.8~3.6V power supply and IO voltage

 ● Power-on reset, power-down reset and programmable voltage monitoring

 ● Powerful clock system

-4~26M external high-speed crystal oscillator

-Internal 16MHz high-speed RC oscillator

-Internal phase-locked loop (PLL, frequency multiplication), generally the system clock is obtained from external or internal high-speed clock after PLL multiplication

-External low-speed 32.768K crystal oscillator, mainly used as RTC clock source


11. Low power consumption

 ●Three low power consumption modes of sleep, stop and standby

 ●Available battery to power RTC and backup registers



 ●3 12-bit AD [up to 24 external test channels]

 ●Internal channel can be used for internal temperature measurement

 ●Built-in reference voltage


13.STM32F407 chip internal structure diagram


14. How do STM32F407 chip pins and functions correspond

 ● Chip internal structure diagram


 ● Data sheet pin function table


The above is all about STMicroelectronics STM32F407 chip. For more information about well-known manufacturers of Embedded Microcontroller Units, click here.

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