Single-Chip Microcomputer is a kind of integrated circuit chip. It uses VLSI technology to integrate the central processing unit CPU, random access memory RAM, read-only memory ROM, multiple I/O ports, interrupt systems, and timers with data processing capabilities. /Counter and other functions (may also include display drive circuit, pulse width modulation circuit, analog multiplexer, A/D converter and other circuits) integrated on a silicon chip to form a small and complete microcomputer system, in industry Widely used in the field of control. From the 1980s, from the then 4-bit and 8-bit single-chip microcomputers to the current 300M high-speed single-chip microcomputer.
Microcontroller Parts, also known as single-chip microcontrollers, are not chips that complete a certain logic function, but integrate a computer system into a chip. It is equivalent to a miniature computer. Compared with a computer, the SCM only lacks I/O equipment. In a nutshell: a chip becomes a computer. Its small size, light weight and low price provide convenient conditions for learning, application and development. At the same time, learning to use Microcontroller Parts is the best choice to understand the principle and structure of computers.
Since the 1990s, SCM technology has been developed. With the progress of the times and the development of science and technology, the practical application of this technology has matured day by day, and SCM has been widely used in various fields. Nowadays, people pay more and more attention to the development and application of single-chip microcomputers in intelligent electronic technology. The development of single-chip microcomputers has entered a new era. Whether it is automatic measurement or the practice of smart meters, you can see the single-chip technology. In the current process of industrial development, the electronics industry is an emerging industry. In industrial production, people successfully use electronic information technology to integrate electronic information technology with single-chip microcomputer technology, which effectively improves the effect of single-chip microcomputer applications. As a branch of computer technology, the application of single chip microcomputer technology in the field of electronic products enriches the functions of electronic products, and also provides a new way for the development and application of intelligent electronic equipment, realizing the innovation and development of intelligent electronic equipment .
Single chip microcomputer is also called monolithic microcontroller, which belongs to an integrated circuit chip. The single-chip microcomputer mainly includes CPU, read-only memory ROM and random access memory RAM. The diversified data acquisition and control system can allow the single-chip microcomputer to complete various complex operations, whether it is to control the operation symbols or issue operation instructions to the system. Completed by the microcontroller. It can be seen that the single-chip microcomputer can be fully applied in intelligent electronic equipment by virtue of its powerful data processing technology and calculation function. Simply put, a single-chip microcomputer is a chip, which forms a system. Through the application of integrated circuit technology, data calculation and processing capabilities are integrated into the chip to achieve high-speed data processing.
The arithmetic unit is composed of arithmetic components-Arithmetic & Logical Unit (ALU), accumulators and registers. The function of the ALU is to perform arithmetic or logical operations on the incoming data. The input source is two 8-bit data from the accumulator and the data register. ALU can complete operations such as adding, subtracting, AND, OR, comparing the size of these two data, and finally storing the result in the accumulator.
The calculator has two functions:
(1) Perform various arithmetic operations.
(2) Perform various logic operations and conduct logic tests, such as zero value test or comparison of two values.
All operations performed by the arithmetic unit are commanded by the control signals issued by the controller, and an arithmetic operation produces an operation result, and a logic operation produces a judgment.
The controller is composed of a program counter, an instruction register, an instruction decoder, a timing generator, and an operation controller. It is a "decision-making body" that issues orders, that is, coordinates and directs the operation of the entire microcomputer system. Its main functions are:
(1) Take an instruction from the memory and point out the location of the next instruction in the memory.
(2) Decode and test instructions, and generate corresponding operation control signals to facilitate the execution of prescribed actions.
(3) Command and control the direction of data flow between CPU, memory and input and output devices.
The microprocessor interconnects the ALU, counter, register and control part through the internal bus, and connects with the external memory and input/output interface circuit through the external bus. The external bus is also called the system bus, which is divided into data bus DB, address bus AB and control bus CB. Through the input and output interface circuit, realize the connection with various peripheral devices.
(1) Accumulator A
The accumulator A is the most frequently used register in the microprocessor. It has dual functions in arithmetic and logical operations: before the operation, it is used to save an operand; after the operation, it is used to save the result of the sum, difference or logic operation.
(2) Data register DR
The data register is a temporary storage unit that sends (writes) or fetches (read) data to the memory and input/output devices through the data bus. It can save an instruction that is being decoded, it can also save a data byte that is being sent to the memory and so on.
(3) Instruction register IR and instruction decoder ID
Instructions include opcodes and operands.
The instruction register is used to save an instruction currently being executed. When an instruction is executed, it is first fetched from the memory to the data register, and then transferred to the instruction register. When the system executes a given instruction, it must decode the operation code to determine the required operation. The instruction decoder is responsible for this work. Among them, the output of the opcode field in the instruction register is the input of the instruction decoder.
(4) Program counter PC
PC is used to determine the address of the next instruction to ensure that the program can be executed continuously, so it is usually called the instruction address counter. Before the program starts executing, the memory unit address of the first instruction of the program (ie, the first address of the program) must be sent to the PC so that it always points to the address of the next instruction to be executed.
(5) Address register AR
The address register is used to save the address of the memory unit or I/O device that the current CPU wants to access. Due to the speed difference between memory and CPU, address registers must be used to keep address information until the memory read/write operation is completed.
Obviously, when the CPU stores data to the memory, the CPU accesses data from the internal memory, and the CPU reads instructions from the memory, address registers and data registers are all used. Similarly, if the address of the peripheral device is viewed as a memory address unit, then when the CPU and the peripheral device exchange information, the address register and the data register are also needed.
(1) The volume of Microcontroller is relatively small, the internal chip is used as a computer system, its structure is simple, but the function is perfect, it is very convenient to use, and can be modularized.
(2) The single-chip microcomputer has a high degree of integration and strong reliability. Even if the single-chip microcomputer is working for a long time, there will be no malfunction.
(3) The low voltage and low energy consumption of single-chip microcomputers are the first choice in people's daily life, providing convenience for production and research and development.
(4) The single-chip microcomputer has strong data processing and computing capabilities, can be used in various environments, and has strong control capabilities.
Structure and function of 51 single chip microcomputer
The development of single-chip microcomputer has gone through stages such as 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit. 8-bit single-chip microcomputers are widely used in industrial control, intelligent interface, instrumentation and other fields due to their strong functions. 8-bit single-chip microcomputers still occupy the mainstream position in medium and small-scale applications, representing the development direction of single-chip microcomputers, and are used in Embedded Microcontroller applications. Playing an increasingly important role. In the early 1980s, Intel introduced the 8-bit MCS-51 series of microcontrollers.
The logic components of MCS-51 microcontroller, including an 8-bit CPU and on-chip oscillator, 80514B mask ROM, 87514KBEPROM, 8031 no ROM, special function registers SFR128BRAM, timer/counter T0 and T1, parallel I/O interface: P0 , P1, P2, P3; Serial interface: TXD, RXD; Interrupt system: INT0, INT1.
1.8-bit data bus, 16-bit address bus CPU;
2. With Boolean processing capability and bit processing capability;
3. Using Harvard structure, the address space of program memory and data memory are independent, which is convenient for program design;
4. 64KB program memory and 64KB data memory with the same address;
5.0-8KB on-chip program memory (no 8031, 4KB for 8051, 8KB for 8052, 20KB for 89C55);
6.128 bytes on-chip data memory (8051 has 256 bytes);
7.32 bidirectional and bit-addressable I/O lines;
8. Two 16-bit timers/counters (3 in 8052);
9. A full-duplex serial I/O interface;
10. The interrupt structure of multiple interrupt sources has two interrupt priority levels;
11. On-chip clock oscillator.
The characteristics of the single-chip microcomputer can be summarized into the following aspects: high integration; large storage capacity; strong external expansion capability; strong control function.
1. From the internal hardware to the software, there is a complete set of bitwise operating systems, called bit processors. The processing objects are not words or bytes but bits. It can not only process a certain bit of some special function registers on the chip, such as transfer, set, clear, test, etc., but also perform bit logic operations. Its functions are very complete and easy to use.
2. At the same time, a dual-function address interval is specially opened in the on-chip RAM interval, which is extremely flexible to use. This function undoubtedly provides users with great convenience.
3. Multiplication and division instructions, which also bring convenience to programming. Many 8-bit single-chip microcomputers do not have the multiplication function, and it is very inconvenient to program a subroutine call when doing multiplication.
Energy saving control
Since smart electronic devices may be carried out frequently, the energy consumption requirements of these devices are very high, so some energy-saving control modules are often designed to increase the standby time of smart electronic devices. The application of single chip microcomputer technology in energy-saving control is mainly divided into the following aspects: First, when smart electronic devices are out, most of them are in light-load mode. At this time, energy-saving control is required to ensure their basic functions. , To further reduce power consumption. Through the collection of data in smart electronic devices, the single-chip microcomputer can roughly infer that the current device is at a lower load. At this time, the voltage and current output can be reduced to achieve the purpose of energy saving; second, the single-chip microcomputer can control the rhythm of energy consumption, such as: In the Mi Band, the human body’s heart rate, sleep and exercise steps are collected, and these numbers will be stored locally after being collected, and then reported at a minute-level frequency; when the information is not reported, the device is in a state of low energy consumption. When information is reported, there will be some network transmission consumption. The single-chip microcomputer can control the rhythm of energy consumption, and control most of the time of the bracelet in a low energy consumption state, which can make the standby time up to 72 hours or more.
Intelligent voice equipment
In order to better improve the intelligence of smart electronic devices, humans can be allowed to control through simple language to achieve the purpose of voice human-computer interaction. At present, the voice processing chip has been developed and started to be used in smart electronic devices. The application of single-chip microcomputer in intelligent voice equipment is mainly divided into the following two parts: First, in terms of software settings, because the single-chip microcomputer can process some business logic through programming, it can operate the intelligent voice processing process. For example: in the navigation smart electronic device, some of the road names, distances, etc. can be extracted, and then broadcast; at the same time, you can also choose different names and kisses to broadcast, truly realize intelligent customized operation, and better satisfy User needs; second, in terms of hardware design, because smart voice devices consume more resources, in order to better extend the standby time of the product, single-chip technology will be used to dynamically control the power of the product to further reduce the power consumption. At the same time, it can also improve the response time of the hardware through the single-chip technology, and further improve the user experience.
For some electronic equipment, there will be automatic alarm settings. Alarm control is also an area frequently used by single-chip technology, which is mainly reflected in the following aspects: First, for some automatic alarm devices, such as: fires frequently used at home An alarm is a device that turns on a smart alarm when the external environment reaches a certain condition. If the smoke concentration in the room reaches a certain level, or the collected data from the outside reaches a certain state, it will automatically trigger the alarm setting to achieve smart alarm Second, for some smart electronic devices, if the external environment exceeds the working environment range of the device, or when the device has some abnormal conditions, it will trigger its own alarm mechanism, allowing users to know the device’s Operation details, and provide solutions based on alarm information. For example: In some factories, some equipment is often installed to monitor the production environment of the factory. When some abnormal data occurs, an alarm will occur. To ensure the normal operation of the equipment, equipment maintenance personnel need to deal with it in time to avoid A major failure occurred.
With the continuous improvement of medical equipment technology, single-chip microcomputers have begun to be widely used in medical equipment, which are mainly reflected in: First, intelligent monitoring of the patient’s physical characteristic data, some medical equipment can be installed on the patient and its The body data is collected, and then interacts with the background control system. If the patient's physical characteristics are found to be abnormal, an alarm will be generated in time. For example: some medical equipment can monitor the patient’s heartbeat, pulse, blood pressure, etc., if abnormalities are found, the doctor will be called for treatment in time; second, some smart electronic devices will also be used during the operation, for example: some operations require access In the case of avoiding surgery, the operation process can be completed by controlling the smart device to further reduce the patient’s pain and improve the speed of the patient’s body recovery; third, the smart physical examination data analysis device can integrate the user’s physical examination data After inputting it, and then inputting it to the analysis device, through comparison with normal data, the user’s physical illness can be predicted and diagnosed in time. With the continuous improvement of the level of medical technology in our country, the application of single-chip technology has become more and more extensive, improving the level of medical technology and better maintaining the health of patients.
Manufacturer: Texas Instruments
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